Online class was taken today by Dr. Seebu Dhingra. The topic of discussion was ‘Molecular Biology’. Students preparing for Canada and ADC exams attended the class. Questions asked in these exams were discussed, followed by a doubt session. Molecular biology is a branch of science concerning biological activity at the molecular level. The field of molecular biology overlaps with biology and chemistry and in particular, genetics and biochemistry. A key area of molecular biology concerns understanding how various cellular systems interact in terms of the way DNA, RNA and protein synthesis function. Genetics is concerned with the effects of genes on living organisms, which are often examined through “knock-out” studies, where animal models are designed so that they lack one or more genes compared to a “wild type” or regular phenotype. Molecular biology looks at the molecular mechanisms behind processes such as replication, transcription, translation and cell function. One way to describe the basis of molecular biology is to say it concerns understanding how genes are transcribed into RNA and how RNA is then translated into protein. However, this simplified picture is currently be reconsidered and revised due to new discoveries concerning the roles of RNA.
Saturday, 22 April 2017
Today clinical class in endodontics was conducted by Dr. Nitin Singh. The topic of discussion was “Canal negotiation and working length determination in RCT”. The root canal anatomy of incisors, premolars and molars was emphasized. An accurate working length determination of root canal during endodontic treatment is very essential. It makes endodontic treatment easier for an operator to remove necrotic tissue and prepare canals precisely. Various methods have been used to establish correct working length. These include use of conventional or digital radiography, tactile method and moisture on paper point. All of these methods have their limitations. Radiographs are subjected to distortion and magnification. It comprises accurate location of root apices. They are technique sensitive in exposure and interpretation. They also provide a two dimensional image of a three dimensional structure which may not represent real position of apical region. Furthermore, in many cases with conventional radiography, it is difficult to establish the actual length of the canal with a two dimensional image. It becomes even more difficult to establish correct working length with radiography when root canal system is superimposed radiographically by anatomic structures. In such cases, electronic method using apex locator is very useful.
Thursday, 20 April 2017
A patient came to the clinic with pain in his upper right region of jaw. His molars were fused together. The extra tooth was removed and the patient was relieved of pain. Fused/geminated teeth may cause esthetic, spacing, periodontal, eruption and caries problems. Fusion is an abnormality of tooth development, defined as the union at the enamel, dentine, cementum or pulp level during different stages of odontogenesis of two or more separately developing contiguous tooth germs. When fusion takes place, the pulp chambers and root canals may either be joined or separated, depending on the stage of tooth development at the time of union. The process of tooth fusion involves epithelial and mesenchymal germ layers, usually resulting in irregular tooth morphology.
Many flap surgery cases were operated at AHEAD Academy, New Delhi. These cases were performed by students of clinical course in periodontics. Flap surgery is a technique in plastic and reconstructive surgery where any type of tissue is lifted from a donor site and moved to a recipient site with an intact blood supply. This is similar to, but different from, a graft, which relies on growth of new blood vessels. The purpose of periodontal surgery is to treat deformities and tissue loss created by the disease process, eliminating “pockets” of diseased tissue in order to create and maintain periodontal health. Techniques have been developed to deal with the gingival (gum) tissues and underlying bone. The objectives of periodontal flap surgery are to:
Eliminate or reduce pockets.
Regenerate periodontal tissues and their (re)-attachment to the teeth.
Create more normal periodontal form, function, and aesthetics;
Promote an environment more conducive to good oral hygiene practices and professional maintenance care.
Suturing techniques were demonstrated to the new batch of students. Different techniques were practiced by the students after the demonstration. There is a need for students to be able to make a logical decision regarding which suture materials to use in a given clinical situation because the choice of wound-closure materials may make a difference in wound healing and the ultimate functional and cosmetic result obtained. Basic suturing techniques were also reviewed. Knowledge of multiple suturing techniques provides versatility, individuality, and optimal closure of surgical wounds. Techniques that must be mastered include good eversion of skin edges, avoiding suture marks, maintaining uniform tensile strength along the skin edges, and precise approximation along skin edges.
Clinical class in endodontics was conducted at AHEAD Academy, New Delhi. The topic of discussion was veneers and laminates. The types of veneering were explained to the students.. The step-by-step procedure of veneering was elaborated by the staff. The new students were explained the basic chair positions while operating a patient on dental chair. Porcelain veneers (also referred to as dental laminates), are wafer-thin shells made out of dental ceramic that are bonded onto the front side of teeth. Laminate veneers are restorations which are envisioned to correct existing abnormalities, esthetic deficiencies and discolorations. Laminate veneer restorations have two different types: direct and indirect laminate veneers. Direct laminates are applied on prepared tooth surfaces with a composite resin material directly in the dental clinic. Absence of necessity for tooth preparation, low cost for patients compared with indirect techniques and other prosthetic approaches, reversibility of treatment and no need for an additional adhesive cementing system are some advantages of this technique. Intraoral polishing of direct laminate veneers is easy and any cracks or fractures on the restoration may be repaired intraorally and marginal adaptation is better than that of indirect laminate veneer restorations.
Wednesday, 19 April 2017
A 23 year old female came with fractured front teeth. A build up with composite was performed for her by Dr. Parth, a student of clinical course in endodontics. Composite resins are tooth-colored materials that can actually be applied to the remaining surfaces of teeth to replace lost tooth structure in such a way as to actually make them one, blending and exactly matching the physical characteristics and color of natural teeth, and actually strengthening them in the process. Most importantly, modern composites physically adhere by actually bonding to the two elements that teeth are composed of, dentin and enamel. Major advances have resulted from the study and understanding of how the crowns of teeth actually flex or give under biting force and how restorative materials can be used to the greatest effect in the way they interact. And, best yet, composites can be used to restore teeth directly — they are applied directly to the teeth in the dental office in a single appointment. That means no temporaries and no outsourcing to dental labs for fabrication, which also means less cost and time.